RSS лента

Архив рубрики: Религии Монголии

[книги] Буддизм и национализм во Внутренней Азии

Jpeg

Вышла наша коллективная монография: Буддизм и национализм во    Внутренней Азии. Авторы: Ирина Гарри, Рустам Сабиров, Николай  Цыремпилов, Джордж Дрейфус, Шэнь Вэйчжун, Йохан Эльверског, Бато   Дондуков, Владимир Родионов, Аня Бернштейн.

«Книга посвящена исследованию буддизма Внутренней Азии в контексте   вызовов эпохи модерна (modernity) и одной из главных ее идей —   национализма. В ней показаны различные сценарии и формы взаимодействия   буддийской религии и политики, религиозных институтов и государственной   власти, определяется роль традиции тибето-монгольского буддизма в   национальном строительстве Республики Монголия и буддийских регионов   России и Китая — Бурятии и Тибета, анализируются ответы и реакции   буддийских общин на вызовы модернизации и глобализации».

Содержание:

Читать далее

[books] Buddhists, Shamans, and Soviets

quijadaJustine Buck Quijada. Buddhists, Shamans, and Soviets. Rituals of History in Post-Soviet Buryatia
«History in the Soviet Union was a political project. From the Soviet perspective, Buryats, an indigenous Siberian ethnic group, were a «backwards» nationality that was carried along on the inexorable march towards the Communist utopian future. When the Soviet Union ended, the Soviet version of history lost its power and Buryats, like other Siberian indigenous peoples, were able to revive religious and cultural traditions that had been suppressed by the Soviet state. In the process, they also recovered knowledge about the past that the Soviet Union had silenced. Borrowing the analytic lens of the chronotope from Bakhtin, Quijada argues that rituals have chronotopes which situate people within time and space. As they revived rituals, Post-Soviet Buryats encountered new historical information and traditional ways of being in time that enabled them to re-imagine the Buryat past, and what it means to be Buryat. Through the temporal perspective of a reincarnating Buddhist monk, Dashi-Dorzho Etigelov, Buddhists come to see the Soviet period as a test on the path of dharma. Shamanic practitioners, in contrast, renegotiate their relationship to the past by speaking to their ancestors through the bodies of shamans. By comparing the versions of history that are produced in Buddhist, shamanic and civic rituals, Buddhists, Shamans and Soviets offers a new lens for analyzing ritual, a new perspective on how an indigenous people grapples with a history of state repression, and an innovative approach to the ethnographic study of how people know about the past».

Conversation with the author.

[books] Sources of Mongolian Buddhism

sourcesSources of Mongolian Buddhism. Edited by Vesna A. Wallace.

«Despite Mongolia’s centrality to East Asian history and culture, Mongols themselves have often been seen as passive subjects on the edge of the Qing formation or as obedient followers of so-called «Tibetan Buddhism,» peripheral to major literary, religious, and political developments. But in fact Mongolian Buddhists produced multi-lingual and genre-bending scholastic and ritual works that profoundly shaped historical consciousness, community identification, religious knowledge, and practices in Mongolian lands and beyond. In Sources of Mongolian Buddhism, a team of leading Mongolian scholars and authors have compiled a collection of original Mongolian Buddhist works—including ritual texts, poetic prayers and eulogies, legends, inscriptions, and poems—for the first time in any European language.»

  • Features original Mongolian Buddhist texts never before translated into English
  • Introduces a fresh approach to understanding Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhism through primary sources
  • Offers literature from the seventeenth century to the present

[книги] Боо и Бон: Древние шаманские традиции Сибири и Тибета в их отношении к учениям центральноазиатского будды

Дмитрий Ермаков. Боо и Бон: Древние шаманские традиции Сибири и Тибета в их отношении к учениям центральноазиатского будды. Книга 1. Издательство «Пальмира», 2020.
Издательская аннотация:
«Книга современного исследователя тибетского бона Дмитрия Ермакова, в которой рассказывается о древних шаманских традициях Сибири и Тибета — бурятском боо мургэла и тибетском боне — в их отношении к учениям центральноазиатского будды. Она может быть одинаково полезной как для ученых, так и для практикующих бон, тибетский буддизм и шаманизм».

[books] Building a Religious Empire

Building a Religious Empire

Brenton Sullivan. Building a Religious Empire. Tibetan Buddhism, Bureaucracy, and the Rise of the Gelukpa

The vast majority of monasteries in Tibet and nearly all of the monasteries in Mongolia belong to the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism, best known through its symbolic head, the Dalai Lama. Historically, these monasteries were some of the largest in the world, and even today some Geluk monasteries house thousands of monks, both in Tibet and in exile in India. In Building a Religious Empire, Brenton Sullivan examines the school’s expansion and consolidation of power along the frontier with China and Mongolia from the mid-seventeenth through the mid-eighteenth centuries to chart how its rise to dominance took shape.
In contrast to the practice in other schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Geluk lamas devoted an extraordinary amount of effort to establishing the institutional frameworks within which everyday aspects of monastic life, such as philosophizing, meditating, or conducting rituals, took place. In doing so, the lamas drew on administrative techniques usually associated with state-making—standardization, record-keeping, the conscription of young males, and the concentration of manpower in central cores, among others—thereby earning the moniker «lama official,» or «Buddhist bureaucrat.»

The deployment of these bureaucratic techniques to extend the Geluk «liberating umbrella» over increasing numbers of lands and peoples leads Sullivan to describe the result of this Geluk project as a «religious empire.» The Geluk lamas’ privileging of the monastic institution, Sullivan argues, fostered a common religious identity that insulated it from factionalism and provided legitimacy to the Geluk project of conversion, conquest, and expansion. Ultimately, this system succeeded in establishing a relatively uniform and resilient network of thousands of monasteries stretching from Nepal to Lake Baikal, from Beijing to the Caspian Sea.»

Mongolian Buddhism in the Modern World

Buddhism & Psychology

«Buddhist communities in the United States and beyond have been shaped by psychological interpretation for nearly two centuries. Leading Asian Buddhist figures and leaders of Asian Buddhist communities used psychological theories to legitimate and explain their teachings—from Dharmapāla and Soen in the 19th century to Suzuki and Nyanaponika in the 20th century and to the Dalai Lama in the 21st century. US “convert” Buddhist communities, from the Zen Centers of the 1950s and 1960s to the so-called “insight” meditation groups of the 1990s, often simply assumed without discussion that Buddhist concepts such as rebirth should be viewed as psychological metaphors. These communities may not have always consciously drawn on psychological frames in their practice of a Buddhism that was understood to be, by definition, fundamentally psychological (as discussed in “Discovery of the Psychological Buddhism”). However, a marked turn was taken through the 1990s as a growing number of voices began to advocate explicitly for the active use of psychotherapeutic insights and practices within Buddhist communities.

Contemporary psychoanalytic clinician Paul Cooper suggests that the psychotherapeutic process can help unblock unconscious material that can otherwise thwart Buddhist meditators. Meanwhile, as Ann Gleig has discussed, “teacher scandals” are often cited as a prime example of how psychotherapeutic, and specifically psychoanalytic, theories can be essential for Buddhist communities. Psychoanalytic teachings, it is suggested, can help these communities work through the idealization of authority figures and transform an unhealthy repression of sexual desire into creative sublimation. Claims that psychodynamic concepts could be of benefit have not only come from psychologists who may be inclined to think their work has utility.»
Ira Helderman. Psychological Interpreters of Buddhism

[books] The Buddha’s Footprint

Johan Elverskog. The Buddha’s Footprint: An Environmental History of Asia.
buddhas_foot_«In the current popular imagination, Buddhism is often understood to be a religion intrinsically concerned with the environment. The Dharma, the name given to Buddhist teachings by Buddhists, states that all things are interconnected. Therefore, Buddhists are perceived as extending compassion beyond people and animals to include plants and the earth itself out of a concern for the total living environment. In The Buddha’s Footprint, Johan Elverskog contends that only by jettisoning this contemporary image of Buddhism as a purely ascetic and apolitical tradition of contemplation can we see the true nature of the Dharma. According to Elverskog, Buddhism is, in fact, an expansive religious and political system premised on generating wealth through the exploitation of natural resources.
Elverskog surveys the expansion of Buddhism across Asia in the period between 500 BCE and 1500 CE, when Buddhist institutions were built from Iran and Azerbaijan in the west, to Kazakhstan and Siberia in the north, Japan in the east, and Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south. He examines the prosperity theology at the heart of the Dharma that declared riches to be a sign of good karma and the means by which spritiual status could be elevated through donations bequeathed to Buddhist institutions. He demonstrates how this scriptural tradition propelled Buddhists to seek wealth and power across Asia and to exploit both the people and the environment.

Elverskog shows the ways in which Buddhist expansion not only entailed the displacement of local gods and myths with those of the Dharma—as was the case with Christianity and Islam—but also involved fundamentally transforming earlier social and political structures and networks of economic exchange. The Buddha’s Footprint argues that the institutionalization of the Dharma was intimately connected to agricultural expansion, resource extraction, deforestation, urbanization, and the monumentalization of Buddhism itself.»

Монголия между Далай-ламой и Пекином

Любопытная заметка — Dragged into a Power Struggle: Mongolia caught between the Dalai Lama and Beijing — о том, как Китай пытается решить проблему со следующим Далай-ламой и о месте Монголии в этом.

В январе в США приняли Tibetan Policy and Support Act, согласно которому любое вмешательство КНР в определение следующего Далай-ламы будет рассматриваться как нарушение прав человека и т.п. В контексте нынешнего ухудшения американо-китайских отношений это особенно интересно. Правда, пока этот вопрос станет актуальным — долгих лет жизни нынешнему Далай-ламе — все может поменяться. Но то, что тибетский вопрос на Западе давно стал инструментом давления на Китай — это факт.

urn

Автор пишет, что визит Далай-ламы в Монголию в 2016 г. для определения 10 Богдо-гэгэна поломал китайцам их золотую урну, т.е. попытки контролировать перерожденцев — прежде все Богдо-гэгэны, кроме первых двух, были тибетцами и выбирались при участии маньчжуров (кроме девятого). Китайская логика тут простая — мы раньше контролировали перерожденцев во времена Цинской империи, это традиция, поэтому «можем повторить». Однако проблема тут в том, что Цинская империя — это не китайская империя (см. статью Дмитриева С.В. и Кузьмина С.Л.), поэтому претензии КНР на управление перерожденцами сомнительна не только с моральной, но и с исторической точки зрения.

Далее. Ситуация сложнее, т.к. помимо Монголии касается — в меньшей степени — и России, т.к. у нас тоже есть перерожденцы и последователи тибетского буддизма.

Десятый Богдо-гэгэн потенциально, конечно, представляет угрозу китайским попыткам контролировать перерожденцев, т.к. будет высшим легитимным иерархом в тибетском буддизме традиции гелуг и, скорее всего, сможет сам определять и утверждать перерожденцев. Но в то же время — поскольку монголы не заинтересованы в обострении отношений с КНР — он может усилить независимость  монгольской сангхи и дистанцировать ее от тибетских дел.

Я писал в своей статье, что для Монголии тут вообще открываются хорошие перспективы проявить свою субъектность и занять лидирующее положение в мире тибето-монгольского буддизма.

 

 

 

 

 

[видео] Христианство в Монголии: история и современность