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Архив рубрики: Религии Монголии

[books] The Buddha’s Footprint

Johan Elverskog. The Buddha’s Footprint: An Environmental History of Asia.
buddhas_foot_«In the current popular imagination, Buddhism is often understood to be a religion intrinsically concerned with the environment. The Dharma, the name given to Buddhist teachings by Buddhists, states that all things are interconnected. Therefore, Buddhists are perceived as extending compassion beyond people and animals to include plants and the earth itself out of a concern for the total living environment. In The Buddha’s Footprint, Johan Elverskog contends that only by jettisoning this contemporary image of Buddhism as a purely ascetic and apolitical tradition of contemplation can we see the true nature of the Dharma. According to Elverskog, Buddhism is, in fact, an expansive religious and political system premised on generating wealth through the exploitation of natural resources.
Elverskog surveys the expansion of Buddhism across Asia in the period between 500 BCE and 1500 CE, when Buddhist institutions were built from Iran and Azerbaijan in the west, to Kazakhstan and Siberia in the north, Japan in the east, and Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south. He examines the prosperity theology at the heart of the Dharma that declared riches to be a sign of good karma and the means by which spritiual status could be elevated through donations bequeathed to Buddhist institutions. He demonstrates how this scriptural tradition propelled Buddhists to seek wealth and power across Asia and to exploit both the people and the environment.

Elverskog shows the ways in which Buddhist expansion not only entailed the displacement of local gods and myths with those of the Dharma—as was the case with Christianity and Islam—but also involved fundamentally transforming earlier social and political structures and networks of economic exchange. The Buddha’s Footprint argues that the institutionalization of the Dharma was intimately connected to agricultural expansion, resource extraction, deforestation, urbanization, and the monumentalization of Buddhism itself.»

Монголия между Далай-ламой и Пекином

Любопытная заметка — Dragged into a Power Struggle: Mongolia caught between the Dalai Lama and Beijing — о том, как Китай пытается решить проблему со следующим Далай-ламой и о месте Монголии в этом.

В январе в США приняли Tibetan Policy and Support Act, согласно которому любое вмешательство КНР в определение следующего Далай-ламы будет рассматриваться как нарушение прав человека и т.п. В контексте нынешнего ухудшения американо-китайских отношений это особенно интересно. Правда, пока этот вопрос станет актуальным — долгих лет жизни нынешнему Далай-ламе — все может поменяться. Но то, что тибетский вопрос на Западе давно стал инструментом давления на Китай — это факт.

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Автор пишет, что визит Далай-ламы в Монголию в 2016 г. для определения 10 Богдо-гэгэна поломал китайцам их золотую урну, т.е. попытки контролировать перерожденцев — прежде все Богдо-гэгэны, кроме первых двух, были тибетцами и выбирались при участии маньчжуров (кроме девятого). Китайская логика тут простая — мы раньше контролировали перерожденцев во времена Цинской империи, это традиция, поэтому «можем повторить». Однако проблема тут в том, что Цинская империя — это не китайская империя (см. статью Дмитриева С.В. и Кузьмина С.Л.), поэтому претензии КНР на управление перерожденцами сомнительна не только с моральной, но и с исторической точки зрения.

Далее. Ситуация сложнее, т.к. помимо Монголии касается — в меньшей степени — и России, т.к. у нас тоже есть перерожденцы и последователи тибетского буддизма.

Десятый Богдо-гэгэн потенциально, конечно, представляет угрозу китайским попыткам контролировать перерожденцев, т.к. будет высшим легитимным иерархом в тибетском буддизме традиции гелуг и, скорее всего, сможет сам определять и утверждать перерожденцев. Но в то же время — поскольку монголы не заинтересованы в обострении отношений с КНР — он может усилить независимость  монгольской сангхи и дистанцировать ее от тибетских дел.

Я писал в своей статье, что для Монголии тут вообще открываются хорошие перспективы проявить свою субъектность и занять лидирующее положение в мире тибето-монгольского буддизма.

 

 

 

 

 

[видео] Христианство в Монголии: история и современность

[публикации] Gold Mining, Shamanism, татары, Цеденбал

  • Dulam Bumochir. The State, Popular Mobilisation and Gold Mining in Mongolia. Shaping ‘Neoliberal’ Policies. (download pdf)
  • Judith Hangartner. Margins of Power. The constitution and contestation of Darhad shamans’ power in contemporary Mongolia. Dissertation. (download pdf)
  • Тишин В.В., Нанзатов Б.З. Татары Внутренней Азии VIII–XII вв.: некоторые вопросы исторической географии. (загрузить pdf)

Из старого:

  • Mongolians after Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion (download pdf).
  • Morten Axel Pedersen. Spirits in Transition. Shamanic Souls and Political Bodies in Northern Mongolia after State Socialism (download pdf)
  • Надиров Ш.Г. Цеденбал. 1984 год. (загрузить pdf)

On Mongolian Christians

Interesting data:

«From a research project we conducted in 2011 we learned that:

  • 53-percent of self-identifying Mongolian Christians admit to using idols or images for the purpose of worship
  • 69-percent of Mongolian Christians rely on astrology
  • 59-percent of Mongolian Christians either believe in the Buddhist concept of rebirth, or are unsure if it’s false
  • 27-percent of Mongolian Christians believe that Buddhism and Christianity are compatible religious systems. Syncretism of Buddhism and shamanism with Christianity is rampant
  • Additionally, nearly one quarter of professing Mongolian believers hold a false view about the identity of Jesus. This is critical. Without a proper view of Jesus’ identity there can be no salvation»

Is Christianity Reaching Majority Status In Mongolia?

 

[видео] А. Д. Цендина. Гадательные практики монголов

Доклад на конференции «Рифтинские чтения», Москва, ИКВИА НИУ ВШЭ.

50-летие АБКМ в Монголии

Освещение в СМИ:

Прежние ассамблеи:

ABKM

[Разное]: регби, монгольская Евразия, видео с конференций

XIII Annual Mongolian Studies Conference

Points of Transition: Ovoo and the Ritual Remaking of Religious, Ecological, and Historical Politics in Inner Asia

 

 

Подборка из сети

 

Несторианские кресты эпохи Юань

dsc_7038-nestorian-crosses-1

«The bronze crosses – so called because of their overall cruciform shapes – measure between 3 cm and 8 cm in height and are symmetrical, featuring an outline in high relief and a loop on the back. Their flatness and loop suggest that they could have been pinned on the body as decorative ornaments or personal seals – the latter function further supported by the survival of red-coloured ink deposits in some of the designs, showing that the seals were used as chops to print unique designs on other surfaces, perhaps letters. Scholars also believe that the crosses could have been used as clan identification objects in Mongolian tribes, or symbols that differentiated between male and female clan members. Other theories suggest that the crosses could have been used superstitiously as magical chops to seal properties when owners were away.

… The crosses displayed in different categories also show different motifs and geometric patterns. One highly recognisable recurring motif is the swastika, a Buddhist symbol since the 1st century, which is often represented in the centre, forming hybrid symbols with the straight or rounded parts of the cross shapes. This use of the swastika in combination with the Christian motif of the cross was specific to the Nestorians in China. In other examples, bands that formally represent radiating beams connect the four arms of the cross, seemingly referencing the literary meaning of Jing Jiao in Chinese as ‘luminous religion’. Floral patterns, popular as motifs in Persian culture, are found in other crosses, while Chinese seal-like forms, including the popular form of the Chinese character gong (Text Box: ), recur on other designs, further showing the mix of cultural symbols incorporated into the designs of the artefacts. The animal-shaped motifs on some of the crosses stand out even more distinctly than the recognisable geometric patterns. Most of these motifs recall the shapes of birds – some single ones, others with two heads or pairs of intertwined wings and bodies. These birds are either spreading their wings, reinforcing the strict symmetry of the cruciform shapes, or showing no wings or feathers, confined in the centre of the crosses. While it might be tempting for viewers to think of the birds as white doves, symbolising the Holy Spirit in Christianity, there is no evidence that this iconography existed in Eastern Christianity and Nestorianism in China. Rather, the single bird motif could have been meant as an eagle, a religious symbol for Mongolians who worshipped the sky. The two-headed birds could also have been Buddhist symbols of fire and light, while the double birds with turning heads conform to a popular motif in Persian art at that time».

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