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Архив рубрики: Библиография

[books] Building a Religious Empire

Building a Religious Empire

Brenton Sullivan. Building a Religious Empire. Tibetan Buddhism, Bureaucracy, and the Rise of the Gelukpa

The vast majority of monasteries in Tibet and nearly all of the monasteries in Mongolia belong to the Geluk school of Tibetan Buddhism, best known through its symbolic head, the Dalai Lama. Historically, these monasteries were some of the largest in the world, and even today some Geluk monasteries house thousands of monks, both in Tibet and in exile in India. In Building a Religious Empire, Brenton Sullivan examines the school’s expansion and consolidation of power along the frontier with China and Mongolia from the mid-seventeenth through the mid-eighteenth centuries to chart how its rise to dominance took shape.
In contrast to the practice in other schools of Tibetan Buddhism, Geluk lamas devoted an extraordinary amount of effort to establishing the institutional frameworks within which everyday aspects of monastic life, such as philosophizing, meditating, or conducting rituals, took place. In doing so, the lamas drew on administrative techniques usually associated with state-making—standardization, record-keeping, the conscription of young males, and the concentration of manpower in central cores, among others—thereby earning the moniker «lama official,» or «Buddhist bureaucrat.»

The deployment of these bureaucratic techniques to extend the Geluk «liberating umbrella» over increasing numbers of lands and peoples leads Sullivan to describe the result of this Geluk project as a «religious empire.» The Geluk lamas’ privileging of the monastic institution, Sullivan argues, fostered a common religious identity that insulated it from factionalism and provided legitimacy to the Geluk project of conversion, conquest, and expansion. Ultimately, this system succeeded in establishing a relatively uniform and resilient network of thousands of monasteries stretching from Nepal to Lake Baikal, from Beijing to the Caspian Sea.»

[book] A Monastery on the Move

A Monastery on the Move: Art and Politics in Later Buddhist Mongolia

Uranchimeg Tsultemin. A Monastery on the Move: Art and Politics in Later Buddhist Mongolia.

«In 1639, while the Géluk School of the Fifth Dalai Lama and Qing emperors vied for supreme authority in Inner Asia, Zanabazar (1635–1723), a young descendent of Chinggis Khaan, was proclaimed the new Jebtsundampa ruler of the Khalkha Mongols. Over the next three centuries, the ger (yurt) erected to commemorate this event would become the mobile monastery Ikh Khüree, the political seat of the Jebtsundampas and a major center of Mongolian Buddhism. When the monastery and its surrounding structures were destroyed in the 1930s, they were rebuilt and renamed Ulaanbaatar, the modern-day capital of Mongolia.

Based on little-known works of Mongolian Buddhist art and architecture, A Monastery on the Move presents the intricate and colorful history of Ikh Khüree and of Zanabazar, himself an eminent artist. Author Uranchimeg Tsultemin makes the case for a multifaceted understanding of Mongol agency during the Géluk’s political ascendancy and the Qing appropriation of the Mongol concept of dual rulership (shashin tör) as the nominal “Buddhist Government.” In rich conversation with heretofore unpublished textual, archeological, and archival sources (including ritualized oral histories), Uranchimeg argues that the Qing emperors’ “Buddhist Government” was distinctly different from the Mongol vision of sovereignty, which held Zanabazar and his succeeding Jebtsundampa reincarnates to be Mongolia’s rightful rulers. This vision culminated in their independence from the Qing and the establishment of the Jebtsundampa’s theocractic government in 1911.

A groundbreaking work, A Monastery on the Move provides a fascinating, in-depth analysis and interpretation of Mongolian Buddhist art and its role in shaping borders and shifting powers in Inner Asia.»

[books] Mobility and Displacement

Mobility and Displacement : Nomadism, Identity and Postcolonial Narratives in Mongolia book cover

Orhon Myadar. Mobility and Displacement. Nomadism, Identity and Postcolonial Narratives in Mongolia.

«This book explores and contests both outsiders’ projections of Mongolia and the self-objectifying tropes Mongolians routinely deploy to represent their own country as a land of nomads.

It speaks to the experiences of many societies and cultures that are routinely treated as exotic, romantic, primitive or otherwise different and Other in Euro-American imaginaries, and how these imaginaries are also internally produced by those societies themselves. The assumption that Mongolia is a nomadic nation is largely predicated upon Mongolia’s environmental and climatic conditions, which are understood to make Mongolia suitable for little else than pastoral nomadism. But to the contrary, the majority of Mongolians have been settled in and around cities and small population centers. Even Mongolians who are herders have long been unable to move freely in a smooth space, as dictated by the needs of their herds, and as they would as free-roaming «nomads.» Instead, they have been subjected to various constraints across time that have significantly limited their movement. The book weaves threads from disparate branches of Mongolian studies to expose various visible and invisible constraints on population mobility in Mongolia from the Qing period to the post-socialist era.  

With its in-depth analysis of the complexities of the relationship between land rights, mobility, displacement, and the state, the book makes a valuable contribution to the fields of cultural geography, political geography, heritage and culture studies, as well as Eurasian and Inner-Asian Studies.»

[Book] Politics and Literature in Mongolia (1921-1948)

Politics and Literature in Mongolia (1921-1948)Simon Wickhamsmith. Politics and Literature in Mongolia (1921-1948).
«Politics and Literature in Mongolia (1921-1948) investigates the relationship between literature and politics during Mongolia’s early revolutionary period. Between the 1921 socialist revolution and the first Writers’ Congress held in April 1948, the literary community constituted a key resource in the formation and implementation of policy. At the same time, debates within the party, discontent among the population, and questions of religion and tradition led to personal and ideological conflict among the intelligentsia and, in many cases, to trials and executions. Using primary texts, many of them translated into English for the first time, Simon Wickhamsmith shows the role played by the literary arts — poetry, fiction and drama — in the complex development of the ‘new society’, helping to bring Mongolia’s nomadic herding population into the utopia of equality, industrial progress and social well-being promised by the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party.»

[book] Subjective Lives and Economic Transformations in Mongolia

Rebecca M. Empson. Subjective Lives and Economic Transformations in Mongolia. Life in the Gap.

Subjective Lives and Economic Transformations in Mongolia details this complex story through the intimate lives of five women. Building on long-term friendships, which span over 20 years, Rebecca documents their personal journeys in an ever-shifting landscape. She reveals how these women use experiences of living a ‘life in the gap’ to survive the hard reality between desired outcomes and their actual daily lives. In doing so, she offers a completely different picture from that presented by economists and statisticians of what it is like to live in this fluctuating extractive economy.

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[books] The Buddha’s Footprint

Johan Elverskog. The Buddha’s Footprint: An Environmental History of Asia.
buddhas_foot_«In the current popular imagination, Buddhism is often understood to be a religion intrinsically concerned with the environment. The Dharma, the name given to Buddhist teachings by Buddhists, states that all things are interconnected. Therefore, Buddhists are perceived as extending compassion beyond people and animals to include plants and the earth itself out of a concern for the total living environment. In The Buddha’s Footprint, Johan Elverskog contends that only by jettisoning this contemporary image of Buddhism as a purely ascetic and apolitical tradition of contemplation can we see the true nature of the Dharma. According to Elverskog, Buddhism is, in fact, an expansive religious and political system premised on generating wealth through the exploitation of natural resources.
Elverskog surveys the expansion of Buddhism across Asia in the period between 500 BCE and 1500 CE, when Buddhist institutions were built from Iran and Azerbaijan in the west, to Kazakhstan and Siberia in the north, Japan in the east, and Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south. He examines the prosperity theology at the heart of the Dharma that declared riches to be a sign of good karma and the means by which spritiual status could be elevated through donations bequeathed to Buddhist institutions. He demonstrates how this scriptural tradition propelled Buddhists to seek wealth and power across Asia and to exploit both the people and the environment.

Elverskog shows the ways in which Buddhist expansion not only entailed the displacement of local gods and myths with those of the Dharma—as was the case with Christianity and Islam—but also involved fundamentally transforming earlier social and political structures and networks of economic exchange. The Buddha’s Footprint argues that the institutionalization of the Dharma was intimately connected to agricultural expansion, resource extraction, deforestation, urbanization, and the monumentalization of Buddhism itself.»

[книга] Советское государство и кочевники. История, политика, население

44005157-fedor-sinicyn-sovetskoe-gosudarstvo-i-kochevniki-istoriya-politika-naselenФедор Синицын. Советское государство и кочевники. История, политика, население. 1917 — 1991 гг.

«Россия испокон веков жила бок о бок с кочевыми народами Великой Степи и Севера, постепенно включая в свои границы «кочевые» регионы. Кульминацией этого процесса стала форсированная модернизация «кочевых» территорий, реализованная в Советском Союзе в 1930-е годы. Большинство кочевников практически в одночасье было «посажено на землю». В бескрайних степях выросли города, поселки И колхозы. Многие вчерашние вольные скотоводы стали земледельцами, пошли работать на заводы и шахты. В чем были причины ускоренного, форсированного «привязывания» кочевых народов к земле и каковы исторические результаты этого процесса? На эти и другие вопросы ответит книга доктора исторических наук Ф.Л. Синицына».

[книги] Советско-монгольские экономические связи. 1955–1985 гг.: Сборник документов

ekonomСоветско-монгольские экономические связи. 1955–1985 гг.: Сборник документов. Юрасов А. В. (отв. ред.)

«Сборник документов посвящен советско-монгольским экономическим связям в 1955–1985 гг. — внешней торговле двух стран, сотрудничеству в области сельского хозяйства и транспорта, а также взаимодействию СССР и МНР в рамках СЭВ. Впервые публикуются договоры, соглашения, протоколы, справки, статистические таблицы и другие документы
российских и монгольских архивов, наглядно показывающие, что советская экономическая помощь пронизывала все сферы хозяйственного механизма МНР и явилась основой для модернизации монгольской экономики».

Содержание и некоторые документы (pdf)

[books in French] Le droit mongol, Un savoir‑faire délicat en Mongolie contemporaine

droitFrédéric Constant, “Le droit mongol dans l’État sino-mandchou (1644-1911): Entre autonomie et assimilation” (“Mongolian law in the Sino-Manchu state (1644-1911): Between autonomy and assimilation”).

Partant d’une description complète de la législation impériale promulguée par le gouvernement des Qing pour la Mongolie, l’auteur examine dans ce livre les problèmes nés de l’introduction de cette législation aux Mongols et de l’application de celle-ci. L’étude d’un large éventail de documents juridiques — incluant les codes mongols antérieurs aux Qing, la législation impériale, les règlements administratifs et les jugements rendus à la fois aux niveaux local et central — lui permet d’analyser les interactions entre le droit et diverses questions relatives à l’autonomie locale, au pluralisme juridique, à l’assimilation politique et aux relations entre le centre et la périphérie. L’auteur défend l’idée que les Qing tendirent à mettre en valeur l’approche et les principes du droit chinois lors de l’élaboration de la législation propre aux Mongols. Ils transférèrent progressivement une grande partie de concepts étrangers à la tradition juridique mongole, sinon leur totalité. Malgré les efforts importants mis en œuvre pour contrôler et normaliser l’administration des régions périphé-riques jusqu’à en faire une extension de la Chine intérieure plutôt qu’un protectorat gouverné par l’aristocratie locale, et malgré les effets de l’immigration Han en Mongolie, les principes du droit mongol ne disparurent cependant pas complètement, ainsi qu’en témoignent les jugements rendus par les juges des niveaux inférieurs de l’administration Qing en Mongolie.

bossCharlotte Marchina. La bosse de l’élevage de chameaux. Un savoir‑faire délicat en Mongolie contemporaine.
During the first millennium BCE, the dromedary and, more marginally, the camel began to impose their tall silhouettes on the roads of the Middle East and Egypt. Gathered in two workshops, in Lyon then Nanterre, sixteen archaeologists and historians have tried to assess this camel revolution. From Xinjiang to the Libyan Desert, the increasingly intensive use of the old-world camelids has indeed disrupted the fields of caravan transport but also agriculture, redesigning the trade routes, increasing the export capacities of oases, opening up previously isolated areas. Gradually becoming a critical agent of the economic systems of the desert or semi-desert regions, the camels remain at the same time associated with nomadic populations whose expertise is essential to breed and train these large animals.
…Two articles on the recent fate of the animal and the current practices of camel breeding in Mongolia round off this overview of an animal that is definitely a central one in the history of the regions under consideration.


[публикации] Gold Mining, Shamanism, татары, Цеденбал

  • Dulam Bumochir. The State, Popular Mobilisation and Gold Mining in Mongolia. Shaping ‘Neoliberal’ Policies. (download pdf)
  • Judith Hangartner. Margins of Power. The constitution and contestation of Darhad shamans’ power in contemporary Mongolia. Dissertation. (download pdf)
  • Тишин В.В., Нанзатов Б.З. Татары Внутренней Азии VIII–XII вв.: некоторые вопросы исторической географии. (загрузить pdf)

Из старого:

  • Mongolians after Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion (download pdf).
  • Morten Axel Pedersen. Spirits in Transition. Shamanic Souls and Political Bodies in Northern Mongolia after State Socialism (download pdf)
  • Надиров Ш.Г. Цеденбал. 1984 год. (загрузить pdf)